What Is Artificial Intelligence (AI) ?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. Artificial Intelligence is the theory and development of Computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making and translation between language.
Knowledge engineering is a core part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Machines can often act and react like humans only if they have abundant information relating to the world. Research associated with artificial Intelligence is highly technical and specialised. The core problems of Artificial Intelligence include programming computers for certain traits such as knowledge, reasoning, problem solving, perception, learning, planning and ability to manipulate and move objects. AI must have access to objects, categories, properties and relations between all of them to implement knowledge engineering. Initiating common sense, reasoning and problem-solving power in machines is a difficult and tedious approach.
Robotics: A Major Field Of AI.
Robotics is also a major field related to AI. Robots are machines that can operate autonomously based on programs and commands embedded on it’s software. They are therefore a convergence of computer science, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering. Robots are designed to replace humans in fields which are viable for automated and pre-programmed operations. It recent times, ‘Artificial Intelligence’ has opened new vistas in the field of Robotics. It allows robots to also act autonomously i.e. it is an adaptive feature which has the ability to add human touch to robots and is a cutting edge technology with cognitive functions embedded in the robots. The advent of humanoid robots made it’s way in Robotics in the 20th century. The depiction of humanoid robots as a popular character also finds its mention in many Hollywood movies like Robot(2004) , The Terminator etc.
Machine learning is another core part of AI. Learning without any kind of supervision requires an ability to identify patterns in streams of inputs, whereas learning with adequate supervision involves classification and numerical regressions. Classifications determines the category an object belongs to and regression deals with obtaining a set of numerical input or output examples, thereby discovering functions enabling the generation of suitable outputs from respective inputs. Machine perception deals with the capability to use sensory inputs to deduce the different aspects of the world, while computer vision is the power to analyse visual inputs with a few sub-problems such as facial, object and gesture recognition.
Application Of AI.
From SIRI to self-driving cars, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is progressing rapidly. While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything from Google’s search algorithms to IBM’s Watson to autonomous weapons.
Artificial Intelligence today is properly known as AI (or weak AI), in that it is designed to perform a narrow task. However, the long-term goal of many researchers is to create general AI (AGI or strong AI). While narrow AI may outperform humans at whatever it’s specific task is, like playing chess or solving equations, AGI would outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task.
In the long-term, an important question is what will happen if the quest for strong AI succeeds and an AI becomes better than humans at all cognitive tasks. As pointed out by IJ Good in 1965, designing smarter AI systems is itself a cognitive task. Such a system could potentially undergo recursion self-improvement, triggering an Intelligence explosion leaving human intellect far behind. Some experts have expressed concern, though, that it might also be the last, unless we learn to align the goals of the AI with ours before it becomes Superintelligent.
The most recent development in Artificial Intelligence is Sophia. Sophia is a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong based company Hanson Robotics. Sophia was activated on 19th April, 2015 and made her first public Appearance at South by South-West festival (SXSW) in mid-March 2016 in Austin, Texas, United States. She is able to display more than 62 facial expression. In October 2017, the robot became a Saudi Arabian citizen, the first robot to receive citizenship of any country.
In India, a few research groups have been working on development of robots, but a breakthrough is yet to be made in the file of robots for large-scale industrial application. The groups working on robotics include R and D of the Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT), The Central Machine Tools Institute (CMIT), and the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras.
It is human beings who make science. ILLs of science like the destructive power of nuclear weapons, the erosion of values because of spread of gross materialism, ever increasing depletion of natural resources, degradation and pollution of the environment etc are actually the ills of man using science in a way that is destructive, undesirable and unholy. It is because the scientist in man has deviated from his social commitments, social conscience. Therefore, there are some sections in the society who want an immediate halt to the growth of scientific researches and studies.
“Everything we love about civilisation is a product of intelligence, so amplifying our human intelligence with artificial intelligence has the potential of helping civilisation flourish like never before, as long as we manage to keep the technology beneficial.”
__ Max Tegmark, President of the Future of life Institute.